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人類乳頭瘤病毒(HPV)

What is Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?
What are high-risk and low-risk HPV? What disease they are responsible for?
How How is HPV spread?
What is the symptom?
When can I receive the test and the accuracy of it?
How can it be treated?
What happens if HPV-related disease is not treated properly?
How can I protect myself from HPV?

What is Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?
HPV is a group of more than 150 related viruses. HPV is so common that more than 75% of men and women get infected in some point of their lives. More than 40 types of HPV are transmitted through sexual contact. They are divided into groups: High-risk HPV and Low-risk groups.

  • High-risk HPV infection can cause cancer in both men and women
  • Low-risk HPV infection can cause skin warts, genital and anus warts

What are high-risk and low-risk HPV? What disease they are responsible for?

 

High-risk HPV

Low-risk HPV

Common HPV type

16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58

6, 11

 

Related disease

Male

Women

For both Men and Women

- Anal cancer

- Penile cancer

- Cervical cancer

- Vaginal cancer

- Vulvar cancer

- Anal cancer

Genital or anal warts

How How is HPV spread?
HPV infect people by skin-to-skin contact or sexual contact. It is most commonly transmitted through vaginal, anal or oral sex.

What is the symptom?
Most people infected with HPV do not develop any symptoms, but the symptoms caused by HPV-related disease is noticeable:
Genital warts:
・Raised and flat warts
Appear as single warts or multiple warts in a cluster, shape like cauliflower
Present on the penis or scrotum, cervix or around vagina

Cervical cancer:
Abnormal vaginal bleeding
Longer and heavier menstrual bleeding

Anal cancer:
Rectal bleeding and itching
Abnormal discharge from the anus
Pain in the anal area

When can I receive the test and the accuracy of it?
The accuracy of HPV DNA genotyping test is >95%. You could receive a HPV genotyping test if:

After unprotective sex
You or your partner have any symptoms
You or your partner have sexually transmitted disease

How can it be treated?
In most people, HPV can be removed by their own immune system. But sometimes, the infection does not clear and cause different health problems.
Although there is no treatment for the HPV itself, treatments are available for the HPV-caused health issues:

The visible genital warts can be removed in different ways, for example: cryotherapy and laser therapy (please seek medical advice before beginning the treatment).
Cervical precancer can be treated when diagnosed early. Routine HPV DNA Genotyping and Pap smear tests are needed to identify the health problems before cancer develops.

What happens if HPV-related disease is not treated properly?
For people infected with genital warts, the genital warts may remain unchanged or increase in size or number.

How can I protect myself from HPV?

Get the updated HPV vaccines, GARDASIL 9 to protect against HPV infection
Use condom every time when having vaginal, oral or anal sex
Since some skin area (like scrotum) is not covered by condoms, condoms may not fully protect against HPV. Avoid having sexual contact with someone who have or might have HPV.